Creating a Simulator
Neural Network Node
Modified Fourier Neural Network

Modified Fourier Neural Network

Fourier Neural Networks are highly effective for dealing with problems characterized by sudden changes or interfaces between different materials. These networks often encounter difficulties when training physics-informed neural networks due to sharp gradients. However, a modified version can significantly enhance their performance.

This modified version, inspired by a technique in a paper by Wang et. al., includes two transformation layers that project Fourier features into a new learned feature space. These transformed features then update the hidden layers through element-wise multiplication, mirroring the original technique in 1.

This architecture modification has been shown to improve both training convergence and accuracy. However, it's worth noting that this could slightly increase the training time per iteration.


  1. Wang, Sifan, Yujun Teng, and Paris Perdikaris. "Understanding and mitigating gradient flow pathologies in physics-informed neural networks." (opens in a new tab)" SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing 43.5 (2021): A3055-A3081.