Neural networks
Modified Fourier Neural Network

Modified Fourier Neural Network

Fourier Neural network is highly effective for dealing with problems that have sudden changes or there are different materials interfacing - when training physics-informed neural networks to solve such problems, it involves working with sharp gradients, which is very hard to handle in neural networks. A modified version of these networks can actually enhance their performance even more!

The modified version, inspired by a technique in 1, adds two transformation layers to project the Fourier features into a new learned feature space. These transformed features then update the hidden layers through element-wise multiplications, similar to the original technique in 1.

This small tweak in the architecture has been shown to improve both the training convergence and accuracy. However, there's a trade-off: training time per iteration might increase a bit.


  1. Wang, Sifan, Yujun Teng, and Paris Perdikaris. "Understanding and mitigating gradient flow pathologies in physics-informed neural networks." (opens in a new tab)" SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing 43.5 (2021): A3055-A3081.